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Digital Modes

Talks on Digital Modes
Digital Net Overview
Software (Windows)

Software (Mac)
Software (Linux)

Talks on Digital Modes

During the 2011-2012 Winter season a series of talks are being given at regular NPARC meetings.  Presented so far are: RTTY (January 9), Packet Communications (February 13), PSK (March 12), Hellschrieber (April 9) and Software Control of Radios (May 14).  Available slides are linked below:

  • RTTY - Dave Barr, K2YG (January 9) Slides (PowerPoint 2.6 MB)
  • Packet Radio - Bob Willis, K2GLS (February 13) Slides (HTML)
  • PSK31 - David Berkley, K2MUN, and Frank McAneny, K2EZR Slides (HTML)
  • Hellschreiber - Andy Meyer, N2FYE Slides (HTML)
  • Software Control of Radios - Barry Cohen, K2JV  Slides for the talk (html). Original PowerPoint is here (0.6 MB).

Digital Net

As of Winter 2013 : The NPARC Digital net is active.  After our series of talks on digital modes, members have reactivated the digital net.  The net description:  This net is for anyone who wants to experiment with various digital modes including RTTY, PSK-31, Feld Hell and slow scan TV.  Most recently we've been working primarily with PSK-31 and Feld Hell. Dave Barr K2YG has been in organizing the net  while David Bean KC2WUF has been servering as net control over the past months. Anyone interested in joining the net should be in touch with David, KC2WUF. As of February 2013, we are still experimenting on the best setup for the net, given the dramatic change in band conditions.  For setup:

As of February 2013, for PSK31 and Feld Hell we have worked on 10 meters at about 28071.5 KHz.  By convention, PSK31 and Feld Hell uses USB on all bands.  When we operate RTTY twe have mostly been on 20 meters and the frequency is nominally 14085 mark tone.  This means if you are running FSK (frequency shift keying) your readout should be close to 14085. 

For AFSK (audio frequency shift keying, which is actually Lower Side Band, LSB, using two audio tones generated by your computer, and is the more common and less complicated, but some say less desirable, method of transmitting RTTY), your readout should be somewhat higher, perhaps around 14087, depending on what audio tones your RTTY software is set to. (Note: most RTTY software mentioned below uses AFSK by default.)

In any event, with the longer days, there will still be some DX signals coming in from the west, so we may have to locate plus or minus QRM.  Look around a bit before you assume the net is not there.  For PSK Net Control will transmit a series of 'CQ NPARC NET' for a few minutes before 9pm.  For RTTY Net Control will transmit about 20 seconds of "RYRY" with 20 second pauses for about 3 minutes before 9pm EST (0200z).  Please wait to call until asked for stations to send their calls.

If anyone needs help getting set up, please contact Dave, K2YG, or David, KC2WUF who has been acting as Net Control.

The net is run in 'round table' fashion, meaning that every ham who checks in is given an opportunity to transmit usually in the 'check in' order. The transmitted reports are usually personal news or ham activities that might be of interest to others on the net, or responses to comments made previously on the net. Transmissions do not need to be related to ham radio topics.  The nets also allow for operating assistance and troubleshooting, typically by voice on 145.75 MHz (or perhaps the W2LI repeater 147.255 MHz). For beginners, it's probably useful to find a digital Elmer to help you test out your hardware and software before getting on the net (some possible Elmers: K2YG, K2GLS,  K2MUN, KB2FCV, K2EZR, WB2EDO and KC2WUF.)

Hardware for Digital Modes

Most digital modes can be run with "sound card" software (below) which requires an interface (3 cables) to connect your radio to your computer's sound card. Interfaces can be homebrewed, made from a kit, or purchased. See club member Ralph NM5RM's (formerly KC2RLM) web site for information about these options:

Although NM5RM's site describes an interface suitable for 2 meter packet and the AGWPE packet program, the interfaces described will work for all digital sound card modes.

One advantage of pre-built interfaces or kits is that they will usually be designed to work for the radio you specify and you won't need to worry about "pin-outs", the connection points (MIC jack, data port) on your radio for received and transmitted audio and PTT control. If you homebrew an interface, you will need to determine the pin-outs.  Your radio's user manual should provide this or it may be on the internet. Club members can also help you sort it out.   Several of us are successfully using the SignaLink USB an inexpensive universal rig interface that provides its own sound card interface and excellent isolation for you computer.

A few modes, such as RTTY and packet, can be run with a special radio modem (a hardware device) that is designed for that mode. Some net participants may be using these hardware devices, instead of using a sound card program.

Software for Digital Modes

Net participants should have RTTY and PSK31 software, since these two modes are the most popular net modes. You should be able to find a club member willing to help you test out the software before you get on the net. There is a chart below which has information about download sites for these and other digital mode software programs.

If the net experiments with other modes they will probably be modes designed specifically for keyboard-to-keyboard/ "live" conversations (rather than transmissions of previously composed copy or files). These 'conversation' modes (such as RTTY, PSK31, MFSK16 and Hellschreiber) work well for 'round table' nets since everyone can 'listen in' to the transmitting station, and transmission rates are not slowed by protocols that check to make sure each station received perfect copy. In fact, it is a given that when using conversation modes, you will not receive perfect copy. Even if the transmitting station typed perfectly (rare!), other factors such as noise can produce errors. So please understand that what you receive is not necessarily exactly what was sent. Still, you can usually make out the meaning of the sender's message.

Other modes such as packet, PACTOR, and AMTOR were designed primarily for error-free transmissions. These 'error checking' modes are generally used in one-to-one situations where it is important to verify that the receiving station has received all data perfectly from the sending station. These modes are generally not used in 'roundtable' nets, since error-checking protocols are difficult to use where there are many receiving stations. (Note: Packet does have a special 'roundtable' mode called 'unconnected' or 'UI' mode).

Most sound card modes  were developed for use on HF frequencies. The wide variety of modes stems from the objective of achieving the ideal mode for various situations. Each of the modes has advantages and disadvantages in the areas of bandwidth, speed, accuracy, and resistance to the noise, fading and distortion that is common on HF frequencies. Note that although separate programs specialize in specific modes, there is some software that is multi-mode and multi-OS.  Fldigi ( runs on Windows, Mac OS X and Linux and can handle 14 distinct modes, including CW, PSK, RTTY, Feld Hell and MFSK.  W1HKJ actively updates the program as of 2013.

Many of the links below are out of date.  They are being updated as time permits.  If you have comments please contact the webmaster.

Mode1Software Download Sites2
many links below have been broken into two lines; click on either line
More Info about this Mode
many links below have been broken into two lines; click on either line
RTTY MMTTY 1.68A (2010)

NOTE: Fldigi will run most modes and is compatible with most OS's (Windows, Mac OS X and Linux)
Digipan 2.0

Other choices:

See page 4 of the June 2004 Spark Gaps

Also: the "Official PSK 31 Homepage."

RTTY and PSKAirlink Express Downloads.
Slow Scan
MMSSTV ver 1.13A (2010)
See the links listed at bottom of this page:


(Feld Hell)
IZ8BLY Hellschreiber
(1200 baud)
AGWPE 2003.314:

UISS 4.0 (best for "unconnected" packet use on 'round table' nets):


WinPack (good for "connected" packet mode):

See page 4 of the May 2004 Spark Gaps

To run packet with a sound card, you will need 2 programs:
1.) AGWPE to link the sound card to your radio, and
2.) a terminal program to link to AGWPE; suggested terminal programs are UISS (for the nets) or WinPack (for 1-to-1 'connections')

You can find AGWPE setup info at


(Domino 11)
ZL2AFP Domino:
NBEMS (Fldigi for all operating systems and many other modes).  Currently (Feb. 2013) at release 3.21.68
Narrow Band Emergency Messaging System- designed primarily for use on the two-meter band, or on HF with NVIS antennas
WSPR WSPR is two-way beacon software which also has frequency measuring capability (FMT). See the WSPRnet site (
WSJT: JT65, etc. WSJT is a software package including JT65  for extreme weak-signals such as EME and JT9 (WSJT-X).
JT65-HF Sourceforge:

Additional add-ons:
JT65-HF is a version of JT65 (see above) optimized for use on HF bands. User group:!forum/jt65-hf
(MultiPSK also has a version of ALE)
Automatic Link Establishment - automatically picks the best frequency for both stations by sampling different bands
CW Many programs including fldigi More fun to just learn to listen by ear.
Mode B
WinMor new mode that is a sound card alternative to PACTOR in the WinLink system.

1 Mode: In the chart above, "Mode" refers to the basic modulation scheme. Some modes have more than one variation. The primary variation  is listed in parentheses beneath the mode and it will be the first variation used in the first net of the month. Other variations may be explored during the month.

2 Software: Generally, all of the digital modes above can be run with free Windows software that uses the computer's sound card to transmit and receive the mode's modulation scheme. Net participants are encouraged to download the suggested software well in advance of the first net that will use that mode. This will give them time to configure and learn to operate the software before the net. A few modes, such as RTTY and packet, can be run without a sound card if you have the special radio modem (a hardware device) that is required for that mode. Thus, some net participants may be using these hardware devices, instead of using a sound card program.

For some popular modes, such as PSK31, there are several programs that can be used. The first software listed is the program that most club members seem to use. For beginners, this means it is the program for which you are mostly likely to find help from other club members. Still, net participants are encouraged to experiment with different programs, since you may find a program better suited for you and maybe even for the group!  Not listed above are "multi-mode" programs -- programs that can handle several digital modes. Fldigi is a free multimode program (which also runs on Macs and Linux). Another is MultiPSK. Still another is MixW, but it is NOT free; there is  a $50 fee for this program after a 15 day test period. Finally (?), Digital Master 780 (DM780) is a modern multi-mode  program which uses Ham Radio Deluxe (4.0 and higher), a radio control program .

Software for Apple/Mac computers:

LINUX Software:

  • gMFSK -- Modes: MFSK, RTTY, THROB, PSK, MT and Feldhell.
  • Fldigi - Modes: PSK, RTTY , Hellschreiber, Olivia, THOR and a variety of other varients and modes.  (Note that there are also versions of this free program available for Mac and Windows.)


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